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Fountain pens replaced standard metal pens because they were easier to use and were less messy. After years of improvements (and after appearance of ballpoint pens which are even easier to use) they became a sort of status symbol. Read more about history of fountain pen.
Marker pens are particular types of pen that can write on almost any surface and have many different types of ink. They can last very long or be erased with a swipe of cloth. Read more about history of marker pens.
Dip pens were one of the first mass-produced writing tools. They replaced quills and although an old invention they are still in use but more for drawing than for writing. Read more about history of dip pen.
Gel pens are one of the most modern writing tools and are beloved for their strong lines and nice colors. They are used by both professionals and amateurs because of these characteristics. Read more about history of gel pen.