Industrial Revolution changed everything. Objects that were made by hand or with primitive machines were mass-produced by complex machinery. As times changed so did pencils and ballpoint pens and methods of their manufacture. Here you can read how writing tools are made now.
First ballpoint pens had a reasonable price, but today’s pen are much cheaper because of materials that they use and mass-production. This method of manufacturing helped a ballpoint pen to be one of the most widespread writing tools today. Read more about how ballpoint pens are made.
First pencils appeared in 16th century and were soon improved so they can be used comfortably. Almost the same method of making pencils that was used then is used today and it didn’t changed much. Read more about how pencils are made.