Industrial Revolution changed everything. Objects made by hand or with primitive machines were mass-produced by complex machinery. As times changed, so did pencils and ballpoint pens and the methods of their manufacture. Here you can read how writing tools are made now.
First, ballpoint pens had a reasonable price, but today’s pens are much cheaper because of the materials that they use and mass production. This manufacturing method helped a ballpoint pen become one of the most widespread writing tools today. Here you can read more about how ballpoint pens are made.
First pencils appeared in the 16th century and were soon improved so they could be used comfortably—almost the same method of making pencils used today and hasn’t changed much. Here you can read more about how pencils are made.