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Mechanical pencils are also old invention dating even from 16th century. First ones were relatively simple mechanisms, only to become more complicated with time. Today we have mechanical pencils which can write and draw very precisely.
Quills were the most sophisticated writing instruments for a long time (some 15 centuries). Many large birds gave their contribution to the spreading of knowledge until metal pens replaced feathers in writing. Read more about history of quill pens.
When schools and classrooms started to grow, in 19th century, a problem appeared: how to transfer lectured information to a greater number of students. Solution was at first in a blackboard and chalk and later in whiteboard and whiteboard pen. Read more about history of blackboard chalk and whiteboard pen.
Dip pens were one of the first mass-produced writing tools. They replaced quills and although an old invention they are still in use but more for drawing than for writing. Read more about history of dip pen.