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Beginning of use of pen and ink marked the start of new era of easier recording of information. Without them, early scientific discoveries would be forgotten and development of humanity would be much slower.
Fountain pens replaced standard metal pens because they were easier to use and were less messy. After years of improvements (and after appearance of ballpoint pens which are even easier to use) they became a sort of status symbol. Read more about history of fountain pen.
Crayons in their early forms appeared in ancient times but we started using them in 19th century as art mediums. Today they are used by children but are still important in art. Read more about history of crayons.
When schools and classrooms started to grow, in 19th century, a problem appeared: how to transfer lectured information to a greater number of students. Solution was at first in a blackboard and chalk and later in whiteboard and whiteboard pen. Read more about history of blackboard chalk and whiteboard pen.