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Fountain pens replaced standard metal pens because they were easier to use and were less messy. After years of improvements (and after appearance of ballpoint pens which are even easier to use) they became a sort of status symbol. Read more about history of fountain pen.
At the first glance, who could tell that the first ballpoint pens appeared some 130 years ago? But they did and were intended for writing on leather. Today, billions are made and sold every year and we almost cannot imagine our day-today life without them. Read more about ballpoint pen history.
Mechanical pencils are also old invention dating even from 16th century. First ones were relatively simple mechanisms, only to become more complicated with time. Today we have mechanical pencils which can write and draw very precisely.
Marker pens are particular types of pen that can write on almost any surface and have many different types of ink. They can last very long or be erased with a swipe of cloth. Read more about history of marker pens.