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Crayons in their early forms appeared in ancient times but we started using them in 19th century as art mediums. Today they are used by children but are still important in art. Read more about history of crayons.
Mechanical pencils are also old invention dating even from 16th century. First ones were relatively simple mechanisms, only to become more complicated with time. Today we have mechanical pencils which can write and draw very precisely.
Calligraphy is an old art of drawing letters and symbols in a skillful way. Chinese calligraphy uses ink brush and ink to emphasize motion and represent texts that are charged with dynamic life. Read more about history of ink brush and calligraphy.
Marker pens are particular types of pen that can write on almost any surface and have many different types of ink. They can last very long or be erased with a swipe of cloth. Read more about history of marker pens.