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Crayons in their early forms appeared in ancient times but we started using them in 19th century as art mediums. Today they are used by children but are still important in art. Read more about history of crayons.
Pencil practically cannot be used without some kind of pencil sharpener. Were they simple knives or complex machines with many rotating elements, their purpose is to make a fine point to a pencil. Read more about pencil sharpener history, facts and types.
Mechanical pencils are also old invention dating even from 16th century. First ones were relatively simple mechanisms, only to become more complicated with time. Today we have mechanical pencils which can write and draw very precisely.
When schools and classrooms started to grow, in 19th century, a problem appeared: how to transfer lectured information to a greater number of students. Solution was at first in a blackboard and chalk and later in whiteboard and whiteboard pen. Read more about history of blackboard chalk and whiteboard pen.