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Calligraphy is an old art of drawing letters and symbols in a skillful way. Chinese calligraphy uses ink brush and ink to emphasize motion and represent texts that are charged with dynamic life. Read more about history of ink brush and calligraphy.
When schools and classrooms started to grow, in 19th century, a problem appeared: how to transfer lectured information to a greater number of students. Solution was at first in a blackboard and chalk and later in whiteboard and whiteboard pen. Read more about history of blackboard chalk and whiteboard pen.
Marker pens are particular types of pen that can write on almost any surface and have many different types of ink. They can last very long or be erased with a swipe of cloth. Read more about history of marker pens.
Fountain pens replaced standard metal pens because they were easier to use and were less messy. After years of improvements (and after appearance of ballpoint pens which are even easier to use) they became a sort of status symbol. Read more about history of fountain pen.