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Calligraphy is an old art of drawing letters and symbols in a skillful way. Chinese calligraphy uses ink brush and ink to emphasize motion and represent texts that are charged with dynamic life. Read more about history of ink brush and calligraphy.
Beginning of use of pen and ink marked the start of new era of easier recording of information. Without them, early scientific discoveries would be forgotten and development of humanity would be much slower.
Gel pens are one of the most modern writing tools and are beloved for their strong lines and nice colors. They are used by both professionals and amateurs because of these characteristics. Read more about history of gel pen.
Fountain pens replaced standard metal pens because they were easier to use and were less messy. After years of improvements (and after appearance of ballpoint pens which are even easier to use) they became a sort of status symbol. Read more about history of fountain pen.